Chapter Fourteen


Purpose:  to link the intended outcomes to the requirements and constraints of the project.  Learning theory and various methodologies are applied to create an environment conducive to effective and efficient learning.

Audience:  the instructional designer creates design documents that target a variety of audiences.

    • The instructional designer:  some documents are useful only to the designer such as logs or journals documenting the progress of the project.
    • Clients:  prototypes and storyboards are effective for communicating to a client how the product will look and function
    • Project Manager:  as the main overseer for the details of the project, the project manager does not need to know details about content, but rather how many module, how many graphics and how much audio and video per module, and client commitments for feedback, resources, and sign-offs.
    • Content Experts:  the SMEs should be able to review the entire content including audio, video, graphics, and other illustrations for accuracy and to review how learners will interact with the program.  For my project this will be Dave Krut and my senior servers, Thomas D. and Joe B.
    • Trainers or Teachers:  often this is the same person as the SME.  It is particularly helpful to show scripts, storyboards, and prototypes for feedback and insight into areas of difficulty for learners as well as strategies for tackling those challenging areas.  For my project this will be Dave Krut.
    • Learners:  typically they get involved when there is a draft version of the program; they will be most interested in the content, assessments, and criteria for passing.  For my project this will be my candle bearers, Will D. and Tom B.
    • Production Staff:  this may include a variety of roles – for this project, I will serve in every role, even occasionally as actor.  My senior servers and candle bearers will also act as actors.
      • Technical Writers
      • Programmers
      • Graphic Artists
      • Photographers
      • Videographers
      • Audiographer
      • Special Effects Artists
      • Actors

Develop Initial Content Ideas

  • Brainstorming:  for my project, one session has been completed for what to teach; I need another session for how to facilitate the learning.
  • Elimination of some initial ideas using the following considerations:
    • Characteristics of the learner population
    • Relationship of ideas to the subject matter and goals
    • Amount of time needed to learn the content
    • Restrictions of the delivery system
    • Ability of the production staff

Task and Concept Analyses

Task Analysis

This process of identifying and organizing procedural skills often involves the use of a flow chart or diagram identifying the sequence of tasks involved in the process.  For my project I felt an outline would be the best method to accomplish the creation of my task analysis.

Concept Analysis

The text compares ways to study World History to introduce content analysis.  You might organize instruction in World History by time periods, or you might organize by concepts such as government, colonization, war, and trade.  I don’t feel this structure relates to my project as much as it would for most K-12 topics.  However, some concepts must be considered in the creation of my project including reverence and leadership.

Preliminary Program Description

Identifying Types of Learning:  The various types of learning require different instructional strategies.

Gagne’s Five Types of Learning

  1. Verbal information
  2. Intellectual skills
  3. Motor skills
  4. Attitudes
  5. Cognitive strategies

Choosing a Methodology

  • Tutorials and Hypermedia:  used for presentation and guidance; typically for concept- and rule-learning
  • Drills: used for practice; typically for verbal learning
  • Tests:  used for assessment
  • Simulations:  used for presentation, guidance, practice, and assessment; typically for skills and attitudes in learning
  • Games:  used for practice; typically for verbal learning

Note that the combination of methodologies typically lead to a more effective learning experience.  At this point I am planning to use a tutorial methodology mixed with a simulation or game.

Identifying Procedures and Required Skills

Entry skills and procedures are identified in my task analysis.

Factor Decisions

Refer to chapters 3-11 do make deliberate decisions about the factors involved in each methodology chosen:

    • feedback
    • question types
    • directions
    • learner control
    • motivation
    • judging
    • simulation fidelity
    • use of graphics

Sequence Description

The nature of this description depends on the methodologies chosen for the project.

    • Tutorial:  include the general order in which learners will encounter directions, choices, presentations interactions, remediation, and the closing.
    • Drill:  include the same information as for a tutorial with additional information about the order of events for each item and a simple description of how items will be selected.
    • Simulations:  include the directions, opening scene, presentations, learner interactions, and the closing
    • Games:  include presentation of rules, events that enhance competition or the entertaining aspects of the game, and what happens when someone wins or loses.
    • Tests:  include the order in which learners encounter the directions and practice items, enter the test, receive real items, leave the test, and receive the results at the end.

Detailing and Communicating the Design

Communicate the design in detail with various design documents intended for the different audiences identified for the project.


Use a prototype to show the look and feel and explain your methodologies before moving on to the development phase of the project.


Provide a bird’s eye view of the structure and sequence of the program; different from but possibly designed in parallel with storyboards.


Provide a visual representation of the design.

  1. Write and revise primary text:  write the actual text displays learners will see
  2. Write and revise secondary text:  write the directions, menus, transitions, prompts, hints, review material, help, score and progress information, entertainment messages, and exit messages
  3. Produce storyboards:  rewrite the information into a computer template to represent separate computer screen displays
  4. Draw and revise graphic displays and plan other output:  this includes line drawings, more complicated pictures, cartoons, animations, geometric figures, photographs, videos, bar and line graphs, graphic text, and sound
  5. Review flowcharts and storyboards:  arrange storyboards according to flowcharts and evaluate for sequence, style, completeness, learner control, and length; look for common problems:
    1. Lack of learner interaction
    2. topics inadequately discussed
    3. Overlapping, overcrowded, or poorly-spaced displays
    4. Seldom or never-used displays
    5. Redundant or irrelevant displays
    6. Displays that emphasize minor points
    7. Question loops in which learners may get stuck
    8. Poor transitions
    9. Poor learner control, such as displays that cannot be reviewed
    10. Text passages that could be enhanced with graphics
  6. Have experts review the flow charts
  7. Have experts and end-users review the storyboards
  8. Make revisions


  • Audio:  be aware that the text for the spoken word must be constructed differently; read aloud as the audio script is written
  • Video:  due to the high cost of video production, it is important to prepare exact scripts and specificiations

Importance of Ongoing Evaluation

Evaluation occurs throughout the planning, design, development, and implementation phases.


At this phase in the process, client sign-off typically deals with the following issues to ensure quality, minimize unnecessary redesign, and avoid project creep:

    • Content coverage and breakdown
    • Specific navigation
    • Graphics
    • Audio
    • Video
    • Quiz or test content and information as to what constitutes sucess and failure
    • Links to databases
    • Need for print and other adjunct materials

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