Chapter Fifteen


The entire process of producing, refining, and validating the program:

  • Program necessary to make the whole program function
  • Production of graphics, audio, and video
  • Development of support materials
    • Directions or manuals
    • Ancillary materials
    • Learner and Instructor Guides

Project Management


    • Project Management Chart:  shows deadlines, items, and comments in reverse order
    • Gantt Chart: illustrates when activities should begin and end, including where various steps may overlap and run in parallel

Budget Management

Example:  $10,000 budget for graphics; graphics expert costs $50 an hour; you want to operate at 40% margin so there is $6,000 available for the graphics expert.  That means the graphics expert has 120 hours available.  If 40 hours are spent on look and feel including title screens, backgrounds, buttons, etc., then 80 hours remain for graphics.  With fifteen graphics, each can take 5 hours 20 minutes.  This will lead to graphics better than clip art but not elaborate or detailed.

Prepare the Text Components

Storing text in external files:  convenient for easy editing (programmer not required) or for language translation.  Drawback:  can lead to security risk.

Write the Program Code

Sad (but TRUE) Reality:  “A professional will be able to program all your instructional ideas more quickly, more efficiently, and for less money than you can.  If you are doing the programming, you are likely to find your designs being constrained, and hence changed, by the limitations of your programming ability.”

Create the Graphics/Animation

Planning -> graphics with consistent richness and character

Produce Video and Record Audio

Give careful consideration to vehicle of delivery as well as testing in various browsers and devices.  Pacing is also important when using audio in a project.

Assemble the Pieces

For my project, this is where Captivate will work its magic.  When there are multiple members on a team, version control is very important in this step.

Prepare Support Materials

    • Learner Manuals
      • Title Page
      • Table of Contents
      • Important Warnings
      • Introduction
      • Equipment Needed
      • Startup of the Program
      • Trial Run
      • Normal Running of the Program
      • Content Summary or Supplementary Information
      • Forms or Worksheets Used during the Program
      • Technical Information
      • Suggestions for Further Study
      • Index
      • Quick Reference Guide
    • Instructor Manuals
      • Title Page
      • Important Warnings
      • Introduction
      • Equipment Needed
      • How to Make Backups
      • Setup of Equipment
      • Starting the Program
      • Trial Run
      • Normal Running of the Program
      • Summary of Content
      • Forms or Worksheets Used during the Program
      • Test Item Bank
      • Transparency Masters or PowerPoint Presentations
      • How to Access and Use Instructor Options
      • Technical Information
      • Suggestions for Further Study
      • Index
      • Quick Reference Guide
    • Technical Manuals:  necessary only when technical information is necessary beyond what is reasonable for an instructor manual
    • Adjunct Instructional Material:  may include practice sheets, maps, large diagrams, videotapes or photographic slides, scoring sheets, certificates of completion, etc.
    • Computer Tools for Production of Support Material:  desktop publishing or word processing software

Alpha Testing

Major test of the program completed by the design and development team to evaluate content, flow, and robustness.  Check against standards laid out in the Style Manual.  (Reference:  Chapter 12)

    • Subject matter
    • Auxiliary information
    • Affective considerations
    • Interface
    • Navigation
    • Pedagogy
    • Invisible Features
    • Robustness
    • Supplementary Materials

Making Revisions

Changes are made resulting from alpha testing.  In some cases, a second alpha test may be required.

Beta Testing

Full test of the final product by the client.  A collaborative approach is recommended, but the client is the main audience in this process.

    • Select learners
    • Explain the procedure
    • Find out how much of the subject matter they already know
    • Observe them going through the program
    • Interview them afterward
    • Assess their learning
    • Revise the program accordingly

Final Revisions

If major revisions are made, another beta test might be required.  Terminate the testing and revision process when the program accomplishes its purpose, not when you regard it as perfect.

Client Sign-Off

Thorough planning and documentation should ensure client sign-off or at least they should be wiling to pay for changes outside the agreed-upon scope of work.

Validating the Program

This is the point where the program meets its goals in the real learning environment.  Here, real users work with the program and a summative evaluation is performed.

Four Levels of Evaluation

    • Level 1:  Assessing Reaction and Attitude
    • Level 2:  Assessing Learning
    • Level 3:  Assessing Behavior Change in the Intended Environment
    • Level 4:  Assessing Results and Return on Investment (ROI)

My biggest question in this chapter is how to demonstrate movements and actions without video.  With no budget, I am relying on my photographs and PhotoShop experience to create graphics that match the look and feel I showed my client in our first meeting.  I’d love to get some video experience, but for this project I’d rather produce a higher-quality product with graphics.


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